ПЕРЕФРАЗИРОВАНИЕ СОЮЗОВ И СОЮЗНЫХ СЛОВ.
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— перефразировать грамматические структуры.
Сейчас потренируйтесь перефразировать грамматические конструкции, содержащие союзные слова и союзы.
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СОЮЗНЫЕ СЛОВА — ЭТО «СРЕДСТВА ЛОГИЧЕСКОЙ СВЯЗИ» ИЗ КРИТЕРИЯ К2 ПРИ ОЦЕНИВАНИИ ПИСЬМЕННОГО ЗАДАНИЯ No40 (РАНЕЕ С1).
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We use although, despite, in spite of to talk about two contrasting ideas which were surprising or unexpected:
Although is followed by a clause and a comma:
Although he studied very hard, he didn’t pass the exam.Even though is stronger than although:He didn’t finish the job, even though he worked all night.
We can change the order of the two clauses:
He didn’t pass the exam, although he studied very hard.
In spite of/despite are followed by a noun, -ing, or the fact that:
Despite/In spite of her excellent qualifications, Carol didn’t get the job.Despite/In spite of having excellent qualifications, Carol didn’t get the job.Despite/In spite of the fact that she had excellent qualifications, Carol didn ‘t get thejob.
Again, we can change the order of the two clauses:
Carol didn’t get the job, despite/in spite of her excellent qualifications.
We use but, however, nevertheless, yet, on the other hand, whereas, while to show a contrast. But is a simple way of expressing a contrast and is followed by a clause:
Jack works very hard but James is really lazy.
nevertheless and however contrast two ideas but the ideas must be in separate sentences or be separated by a semi-colon:
I loved the film. However/Nevertheless, most of the critics gave it a bad review.I loved the film; however/nevertheless, most of the critics gave it a bad review.
We can change the position of however and nevertheless:
I loved the film. Most of the critics, however, gave it a bad review.I loved the film. Most of the critics gave it a bad review however.
while and whereas are followed by a clause:
John loves playing outdoors all day, while/whereas Harry likes playing computer games.
We use as, because and since to show the reason or the cause of something and these are followed by a clause:
We didn’t tell him about the damage to his car as/because/since we knew he would be angry.We use because of, on account of, owing to, due to, as a result of to show the reason orcause of something and these come before a noun or noun phrase:They didn’t go to the beach because of/on account of the bad weather
due to follows the verb to be:
The delay in the train service was due to snow on the tracks.
owing to is quite formal:
Owing to the lack of interest, the meeting has been cancelled.On account of usually means ‘as a result of something bad:He had to sell his house on account of losing his job and not having any money.
We use in order to and so as to to express purpose. They are used before a verb:
He started jogging in order to/so as to get fit.in order that and so that are used before a clause:He started jogging in order that/so that he could get fit.
We use consequently, therefore and as a result to express the result of a previous action. They either start a new sentence or follow and:
I didn’t pass my driving test, and consequently I had to take it again.John won £1 million on the Lottery. As a result, he was able to buy a bigger house.
We use and, in addition, furthermore, also, moreover and what’s more to express addition:
He bought a pair of shoes, a shirt and a coat.He found out that he had passed his exams. In addition, he learnt that he had got into university.When Janet got to the airport, she found that she had left her passport at home. Furthermore, she couldn’t find her ticket.